Department of Gynecology

Department of Orthopaedics
» Arthroscopy
» Joint Replacement Surgery
» Slip Disc
» Sports Medicine
» Osteoporosis

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Department of Orthopaedics

  • Arthroscopy
  • Joint Replacement Surgery
  • Slip Disc
  • Sports medicine
  • Osteoporosis

Knee Arthroscopy

What is knee arthroscopy?

Arthroscopy is minimally invasive surgery done using a telescope inserted through small keyhole cuts in the knee. In requires specialised skills and instruments to smoothen rough surfaces, pass stitches to repair torn structures, and to remove loose fragments, flaps of cartilage, inflamed tissue etc. It allows rectification of disorders inside the joint with minimal surgical trauma, to allow early recovery and quick return to home and work.

Who needs knee arthroscopy?

People with injury to ligaments, meniscus, or cartilage which often occurs in sports injuries and road accidents, often require knee arthroscopy to repair the damage. Similarly, people suffering from osteoarthritis sometimes benefit from knee arthroscopy to remove loose fragments or cartilage flaps.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction:

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is an important ligament which holds together the thigh bone and shin bone at the centre of the knee joint. It is often torn during sports injuries, road accidents, or other twisting knee injuries. People suffering from torn ACL feel instability and insecurity in the knee while running. This causes secondary damage to other structures of the knee, eventually leading to permanent joint damage or arthritis. This ligament is surgically reconstructed by minimally invasive technique using arthroscopic surgery.

Meniscus repair or removal:

Meniscus is a special cartilage cushion, present only in the knee. This can tear during any minor or major twisting injury to the knee. Some meniscal tears, particularly in young people, are capable of healing. Such tears are repaired by applying stitches with arthroscopic surgery, so that the meniscal cushion is preserved in later life. Other tears which are not capable of healing need arthroscopic removal of the loose flap fragments to prevent further damage and ensure smooth painless knee function.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Reconstruction:

Similar to the ACL, the PCL is a strong and important ligament holding the bones in the knee together. When this tears and causes instability of the knee, it is reconstructed by minimally invasive arthroscopic surgery just like the ACL.

Articular cartilage repair:

Articular cartilage is the smooth slippery layer covering the portion of bones inside the joint. Localised defects of this cartilage can be repaired by arthroscopic techniques like microfracture, mosaic-plasty, osteochondral transfer (OATS), or by two-stage procedure using cartilage cell culture techniques (ACI).

Shoulder Arthroscopy

What is Shoulder Arthroscopy?

Arthroscopy is minimally invasive surgery done using a telescope inserted through small keyhole cuts in the shoulder. In requires specialised skills and instruments to smoothen rough surfaces, pass stitches to repair torn structures, and to remove loose fragments, flaps of cartilage, inflamed tissue etc. It allows rectification of disorders inside the joint with minimal surgical trauma, to allow early recovery and quick return to home and work.

Who needs shoulder arthroscopy?

Patients having repeated dislocations (slipping out) of the shoulder can often be cured by arthroscopic repair. Similarly, people having shoulder pain because of rotator cuff tendon disorders, tears of the glenoid labrum, or loose fragments in the joint need arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Cases of frozen shoulder who don't improve with physiotherapy also benefit from arthroscopic surgery.

Repair for repeated dislocations

When a shoulder dislocates due to injury, there is a tear in the labrum, which is the site of attachment of the capsule with the glenoid cup. This leaves behind a permanent gap in the joint capsule and the shoulder ball then easily slips into this gap again and again, causing repeated or recurrent dislocations of the shoulder. This gap, called "Bankart's lesion" is easily repaired through arthroscopy by reattaching the labrum to the glenoid cup using special suture anchors. This procedure, called Bankart's repair, cures the problem of recurrent dislocation.

Rotator Cuff tendon repair

The rotator cuff consists of four flattened tendons which surround the shoulder joint and are very important in shoulder movements. Tears in these tendons cause pain and stiffness which can be quite severe. Such tears can be repaired by arthroscopic surgery using special implants.

Capsular release for frozen shoulder

Frozen shoulder is characterised by severe stiffness and pain, commonly seen in diabetic people. It is initially treated by joint injection and physiotherapy, but those cases which do not improve with this treatment need arthroscopic surgery to release (cut) the tight thickened capsule and ligaments.

Other procedures

Repair of Superior, Anterior, Posterior labral tears (SLAP tears), removal of loose bodies, decompression for subacromial impingement, etc. are other procedures which are done in the shoulder through arthroscopic surgery.

Knee Joint Replacement Surgery

What is Knee Joint Replacement Surgery?

Rough and damaged cartilage surfaces in cases of knee arthritis are replaced with smooth artificial components, while most of the original knee ligaments are left intact. External appearance of the knee remains unchanged, except for the surgical scar. This surgery needs a large clean operation theatre with modern equipment and infrastructure.

Who needs Knee Replacement Surgery?

Patients suffering from painful, disabling arthritis in the knee need to undergo knee joint replacement surgery. Limited walking distance, night pain, severe deformity, difficulty in performing daily activities, are indications for this surgery.

What to expect after knee replacement surgery?

Most of our patients start walking 1 or 2 days after surgery, and feel comfortable to go home in 3 days. Almost everybody can bend the knee to 120 deg and slimmer people can bend even better.

They can sit cross-legged if required, though we do not encourage this. The knee deformity gets corrected, the leg becomes straight, and all patients find tremendous improvement in walking and daily activities because of the operation.

Most patients stop using walking stick within a month. Knee function continues to improve for a year after surgery.

How successful is knee replacement surgery?

Overall, this has been a very successful and rewarding surgery in our experience. We do not recommend this operation for every patient of osteoarthritis. We offer this surgery only to select patients when our experts feel sure that the knee is badly damaged and the patient will benefit significantly from the surgery. Once they recover from the operation and experience its benefits, all our patients feel happy that they underwent the surgery.

In the long term, more than 90% of patients do well for 15 to 20 years without the need for any further surgery. Hence, the chance of requiring a second operation after knee replacement in reality is very low.

The Economics of Knee Replacement

Once considered a luxury for the elite, it is now well within the reach of the common man. The overall approximate expense for a single knee replacement ranges from 1.5 to 1.8 lac rupees in the economy class of most hospitals, including high quality imported implants and medicines. That for both-sided simultaneous knee replacement ranges from 2.6 to 3.2 lac rupees.

Although many patients recover well on their own, some may need 5 to 8 sessions of physiotherapy. Simple inexpensive tablets are required for 3 to 6 months. Working patients can return to work in 4 to 6 weeks.

Shoulder Joint Replacement Surgery

What is Shoulder Joint Replacement?

Shoulder replacement is a surgical procedure in which damaged surfaces of the shoulder joint are replaced with artificial metal and plastic components.

Who needs Shoulder Joint Replacement?

Patients suffering from painful, disabling arthritis of the shoulder, caused by rheumatoid arthritis, avascular necrosis, osteoarthritis, chronic rotator cuff tear, etc. need to undergo shoulder joint replacement surgery. This surgery also allows reconstruction in cases of badly shattered fractures of the shoulder ball (head of humerus) when the fragments cannot be fixed together with plates and screws.

Results after Shoulder Joint Replacement

The operation is followed by intensive physiotherapy for several weeks, as the shoulder remains stiff for 2 to 3 months after surgery. After recovery is complete, almost all patients can lift thearm up to shoulder level, and vast majority can even do overhead activities. Although the movements are usually slightly less than the normal shoulder in most cases, few patients are able to regain full range of joint movements even in the replaced shoulder.

Back pain is usually due to sprains. While performing an awkward movement or because of being in a poor posture for a long time, undue strain is exerted on a muscle or ligament in the back, causing it to overstretch and tear. When this occurs, one experiences sudden pain, while performing the movement. Most cases of these sprains usually heal themselves within a short time.


Stress, anxiety and emotional worries can lead to muscle tension which result in aches and pains in the back. Sometimes back pain is due to a 'slipped' disc, in which the intervertebral disc degenerates and presses on the neighboring nerve. If this occurs in the lower back, the back pain may shoot into the leg causing sciatica. Back pain maybe because of disease elsewhere in the body. Pain in the middle of the back that is made worse by eating and accompanied by indigestion may suggest a stomach ulcer.

concerned with prevention and treatment of injuries resulting from participation in athletic activity.

Sports is every athletes' worst nightmare. For professional sportsmen and women, a major injury could be the end of their career. Breaking an ankle, dislocating a shoulder or hip, or having unbearable pain in the knees could cause an athlete to lose the opportunity to gain honor, fame, and fortune in the field of sports.

For individuals who engage in contact sports competition, it could be the end of an athletic dream or a means to stay fit. For many, sports is already a way of life and defines who they are. But getting sidetracked by an injury could make them lose their sense of identity and chance of a lifetime to gain glory and financial independence.

Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become less dense and more likely to fracture. Factures from osteoporosis can result in significant pain and disability. It is a major health threat for an estimated 44 million Americans, 68 percent of whom are women.


Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds to exercise by becoming stronger. The best exercise for your bones is weight-bearing exercise that forces you to work against gravity. Some examples include walking, climbing stairs, lifting weights, and dancing.

Healthy Lifestyle

Smoking is bad for bones as well as the heart and lungs. Women who smoke tend to go through menopause earlier, triggering earlier bone loss. In addition, people who smoke may absorb less calcium from their diets. Alcohol can also negatively affect bone health. Those who drink heavily are more prone to bone loss and fracture, because of both poor nutrition and an increased risk of falling.